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Archives & Manuscripts

Martha Schofield photograph collection

 Collection
Identifier: SFHL-PA-143

Scope and Contents

This collection contains a number of portraits of Martha Schofield, as well as some family pictures and photographs of the Schofield school.

Dates

  • 1847 - 1984

Creator

Limitations on Accessing the Collection

This collection is available for research use.

Copyright and Rights Information

Copyright has not been assigned to Friends Historical Library. All requests for permission to reproduce images must be submitted to the Curator. Permission for publication is given on behalf Friends Historical Library as the owner of the physical items and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained by reader.

Biographical / Historical

Martha Fell Schofield was born Feb. 1, 1839, near Newtown, Bucks County, PA. She was the daughter of Oliver W. Schofield and Mary (Jackson) Schofield who were married at Darby Meeting in 1834. Both her parents were involved in a number of reform activities, including abolition, temperance, women's rights, and improved education. The family included twin older sisters, Sarah Jane and Lydia, born 1835, a brother, Benjamin, born 1837, and Eliza, a younger sister born in 1840. Of the four sisters, only Sarah Jane married, to Samuel Shinn Ash.

1839-1857

Martha was educated at the schools at Newtown and Byberry and the Sharon Female Seminary in Darby, Pa., which was operated by their mother's brother, John Jackson, and his wife, Rachel. Martha began her own career in teaching at age eighteen at Bayside, Long Island, N.Y., where her aunt, Eliza (Jackson) Bell, lived. She also taught in Harrison, Westchester Co., N.Y., in a school connected with Purchase Monthly Meeting.

1865-1868

In 1865 Martha Schofield went to the islands off the coast of South Carolina to help educate the newly freed African Americans. She found the malarial conditions devastating to her health and moved inland to Aiken, South Carolina, where she founded what became the Schofield Normal and Industrial School in 1868.

1868-1882

The School was partially supported by the Pennsylvania Friends Relief Association, headquartered in Germantown, Pa., and was headed by Sarah Fisher Corlies (sister of Deborah F. Wharton) and Elizabeth Dorsey. The School received some state aid for a number of years. By 1882 there were over 200 pupils, and in that year, the School was incorporated.

1883-1890

Need for financial aid were constant through the years, and a number of people from the Hicksite branch of Philadelphia and New York Yearly Meetings supported the school. By 1883 there were over 400 pupils who, in addition to their education, were taught a trade. In 1884 a boarding department was opened, as well as a student aid fund. In 1887 Edward Hicks Magill and Howard M. Jenkins of Swarthmore College were among those serving on the Board of Managers, and the school house was partitioned into a dormitory for boys. In 1890, the Deborah F. Wharton Industrial Hall, with half of the cost donated with by her sons, was completed.

1910-1916

By 1910 the school occupied two entire blocks of the town of Aiken, with three large brick buildings, two large frame buildings, and various other improvements. In addition, the school owned a 280 acre farm three miles outside of Aiken with its buildings. The running expenses were principally made up by annual gifts from voluntary subscribers. With the exception of the headmaster or headmistress and Martha Schofield, who served as Business Manager, all departments heads and teachers were black graduates of the School.

1916-1952

The night before the School was to celebrate the 77th birthday of its founder, Martha Schofield died in her sleep. She died in February 1, 1916 in Aiken, S. C., and is buried in the Darby Friends burial ground in Darby, Pa.. The Schofield School was absorbed into the public school system in 1952.

Extent

.3 Cubic Feet (1 box, shared with PA142: Anna Gillingham Photo Collection)

Language

English

Overview

Martha Schofield (1839-1916) was a Hicksite Quaker teacher from Pennsylvania who founded the Schofield Normal and Industrial School in Aiken, S. C., in 1868 to provide education for formerly enslaved people. This collection contains a number of portraits of Martha Schofield, as well as some family pictures and photographs of the Schofield school.

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Gift of Eleanor Jenkins Zendt and James L. and Herbert Dresser, 1980, 1985. Part of Martha Schofield papers, RG5/134.

The collection was preserved by Martha Schofield's niece, Mary Schofield Ash who married George H. Jenkins. It was given to Friends Historical Library by her daughter Eleanor Jenkins Zendt and the family of her daughter, Elizabeth Jenkins Dresser.

Separated Materials

This collection was removed from RG5/134: Martha Schofield papers.
Author
Zoe Peyton Jones
Date
2018
Description rules
Describing Archives: A Content Standard
Language of description
Undetermined
Script of description
Code for undetermined script

Find It at the Library

Most of the materials in this catalog are not digitized and can only be accessed in person. Please see our website for more information about visiting Friends Historical Library of Swarthmore College Library

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