The Metropolitan Board for Conscientious Objectors was established by the United Pacifist Committee on July 1, 1940, and become a separate entity early in 1942. Its purpose was to assist conscientious objectors to war with their problems related to refusal to register, difficulties with draft boards because of classification, the Civilian Public Service (CPS) option, and other matters. It was non-sectarian and free of charge, and in the course of its existence gave counsel, and at times legal advice, to nearly 10,000 COs. Its office was located in New York City, first at 2 Stone Street, and later at 5 Beckman Street (Sept. 1944) and 170 5th Avenue (Oct. 1944 - ).
Harrison DeSilver was the first Director/Secretary of the Board, succeeded by Ruth MacAdam when DeSilver was drafted and sent to a CPS camp. MacAdam served from 1944 (or December 1943?) -1945, followed by Lila Rogers. Evan Thomas was the first Chair of the Board of Directors (July 1940 – 1952?), succeeded by Herman Alderstein and Martin Goldwasser. Members of the Board of Directors included R. Boland Brooks, Marion Code, Julien Cornell, Esther Frankel, Edward Gottlieb, Martin Goldwasser, Rabbi Isidor Hoffman, Jessie Wallace Hughan, Abraham Kaufman, Leonard Lazarus, Ruth MacAdam, Tracy Mygatt, Frank Olmsted, Frank Ortloff, Stephen Siteman, Evan Thomas, Frances Witherspoon, and DeWitte Wyckoff.
The work of the Board rose and fell accordingly when Selective Service requirements were enforced during World War II, and the Korean and Vietnam wars, and again in 1980. The Board disbanded in 1980.
Much of the material in this collection came from Frieda Langer [Lazarus]. She counseled many of the COs who came to the Board for help, and worked diligently on the issues surrounding conscientious objection. She helped to found the Board, and was its secretary for many years.