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Abstract In 1883, Quakers Albert Keith Smiley and his brother Daniel Smiley organized the first annual conference to discuss assistance to Native Americans at their estate at Lake Mohonk in New York state. These conferences were widely attended by specialists in various fields, as well as important officials. Only later were Native Americans represented, but they did come. The concern to "uplift" was also directed at Filipino, Hawaiian, African American and Puerto Rican peoples, though attention at the...
Dates: 1885-1983; Majority of material found within 1885 - 1930