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Enoch Hoag papers

Identifier: HC.MC-1034

Scope and Contents

This collection includes correspondence, financial papers, and an account book concerning the finances of the Central Superintendency and the settling of various accounts with Washington, D.C. The papers also touch on the work of Indian Agents, the forced removal of Native Americans to reservations, the progress and politics of Congressional legislation, and issues which arose at various Agencies. While some of the correspondents belong to various Indigenous groups, the majority are whites working for the government or other organizations. Major correspondents include H.M. Atkinson (Special Indian Commissioner), Cyrus Beede, E.B. French (Treasury Department Auditor), John Hadley, Edward F. Hoag, Enoch Hoag, James E. Rhoads, Jonathan Richards (Agent for the Wichita Tribe (Kitikiti'sh) from 1870-­1876), John Q. Smith (Indian Commissioner 1875-­1877), Thomas Wistar, Levi Woodard (Agent at the Sac Nation (Sauk) and Fox Nation (Meskwaki) Agency).

Most of these letters are related to financial matters (vouchers, receipts, etc.). Most handwritten copies of letters and documents are in the hand of Edward F. Hoag, who served as a clerk to his father.

There are also financial and legal papers (1869­-1879) and an account book (1869-­1875). These include expense accounts, receipts, lists of disbursments, court documents, and petitions.


  • Creation: 1865-1883


Access Restrictions

The collection is open for research use.

Use Restrictions

Standard Federal Copyright Laws Apply (U.S. Title 17).

Biographical note

Enoch Hoag (1812-­1884) was the son of Stephen and Martha Beede Hoag. He was engaged in the mercantile business until 1854, when he moved to Iowa and worked as a farmer. He was active in abolition work and aided Freedmen's education. In 1869, he was was appointed Superintendent of the Central Superintendency by President Grant under Grant's "Peace Policy." This policy gave Orthodox Friends supervision of Indigenous Peoples located in Kansas and the Indian Territory. The Superintendency's headquarters were at Lawrence, Kansas. Under Hoag's jurisdiction were nine Indian Agents (also Friends), who were assigned to various Agencies throughout the Central Superitendency. Indigenous Nations in Hoag's oversight included the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma (Kiikaapoa), Shawnee Tribe (Shawano?), Citizen Potawatomi Nation (Neshnabek), Kaw Nation (Kanza, referred to as "Kansas" in the papers), Osage Nation (Wazhazhe), Quapaw Nation (Ugahxpa), Sac Nation (Thakiwaki, Sauk) and Fox Nation (Meskwaki, Meshkwahkihaki), Cheyenne Nation (Tsitsistas), Arapaho Tribe (Hinono’ei), Wichita Tribe (Kitikiti'sh), Kiowa (Ka'igwu), Comanche Nation (Numinu), Wyandot Nation of Kansas (Wendat, referred to as Wyandotte in the papers), Chippewa Tribe (Ojibwe), Peoria Tribe (includes Kaskaskia, Peoria, Piankashaw and Wea), Delaware Tribe of Indians (Lenape), Cherokee Nation (Ani-Tsalagi, Anigiduwagi), Miami Tribe (Myaamia), Seminole Nation, Chickasaw Nation (Chikashsha), Modoc Nation (Maklak), Munsee (often synonymous with Delaware Tribe of Indians/Lenape), and Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Plains (Ka-ta-kas, sometimes referred to as Kiowa Apaches).

Hoag's duties included the establishment of schools, the distribution of supplies, and the payment of government annuities. Hoag resigned his position in 1876, and was succeeded by Dr. William Nicholson. In 1879, Friends withdrew from government sponsored work, partly due to the change in governance with the election of President Hayes.


1 linear ft. (2 boxes)

Language of Materials



This collection includes correspondence, financial papers, and an account book concerning the finances of the Central Superintendency and Quaker work involving Native Americans.


Materials arranged by type, with correspondence arranged alphabetically.

Related Materials

  • Enoch Hoag letterbooks, 1870-­1878 (HC.MC.1104)
  • Jonathan Richards papers (HC.MC.964)
  • Associated Executive Committee of Friends on Indian Affairs (HC.MC.1003)
  • Indian Committee of the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting Records (QM-Phy-838)

Processing Information

Original processing information unknown.

Enoch Hoag papers, 1865-1883
Description rules
Describing Archives: A Content Standard
Language of description
Script of description

Revision Statements

  • February 2022: CPeraria- project to remove harmful language from finding aids

Find It at the Library

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